Economic reform (LPG :-liberalization, privatisation and globalization)

Independence ke bad, indian ne planned development or mixed economy ki policy ka model apnaya. Public sector ko ek prabhavshaali isthan or bnaye rakha.

(LPG :-liberalization, privatisation and globalization)


Development ka ek both bda operator tha. Private sector ko control ke andr hi roha gya tha. 1950 se 1990 ke doran economy ke sanchalan or prabhandan hetu itne adhik niyam bnaye gaye ki vikas orakirya lagbhag avrudhh ho gai.

Iske atirikt sarkar ko pratiraksha or social place pr bui apne samsadhno ka ek bada bhag soend krna pda.

Anek bar to international institution or anya countries se udhar li gai international currency ki sarakar dwara avivek sheel dhang se unbhag karyo pr karch lr diya gaya.

Sarkar ke vyaa uski praptiyo se lgatar uche bne rahe. In vyayo ki purti hetu sarkar badti martra me loan leti ja rhi hai.

In karch ki niyantrit krne ke liye koi possible activities nhi hai. Sarkari nitiyo me raj koshiyo ka abhav ispasht rup se dikhai de rha hai.

Raj koshiyo anishahan hinta ke sath sath indian economy badte vyapar ghate ka bhi shikar hai. 1990 se pehele badte ayato ko simit karne or niryat oar bhi paryvaran dhyan nhi diya gaya.
Decrease in trade :-

Ek desh se ayato ka us dekh ke niryato par ashikaran uska financial map hai. Yah map batata hai ki desh ayato ka mulya us desh ke niryato ke mulya se kitna adhik hai. Yah ek desh ke vastu byapar me ghate ka map hai.

1959 se 1990 ki arthik nitiyo me udhyog ki unnecessary sanrakshan pradan kiya gaya. Farmo or economy ke anya nikayo ka akushal pranbandhan kiya gaya.

Economy ki sampurn sanrachna bhi doshourn hi gai. Isise economy me utpanan bad gai or utpadak ka istar both hi ninm ho gaya. Utpadan ki dhimi vradhi aprat social vyaa or anya karano se inflation ki samsya utoann kr di.

Vastuyo ki kimmato se padti keemato ne sampurn economy ko hila kr rkh diya. In sabhi conditions ke karna bhart ka bhugtan santulan bana raha. Or international currency bahut kam ho gai.

90s ke dhashk ke pearambh me bharat ke pas mushkil se lagbhah do shapath ke ayat ke liye international currency ka bhandar shesh rhe gaya.
Bhugtan ka balance:-

Ek desh ka, remaining world ke sath, ek year me complete transfer ka brief bhugtan santulan kahalata hai.

Raj koshiyo santulan ke sankat ki isthitiyo jo sudharnr ke kiye bharat sarkar ke naye arthik niti ke tahat july 1991 me economy sudhar lagu kiye gaye.

Yadhyapi, economy sudharo ki prakriya 1980 ke dhashak me hi prarambh ho gau thi lekin in sudharo ko purn ichhashakti ke sath lagu kiya gya tha.

Finally, ye sankat ganbhir ho gaye. In isthi me bhart ne 1991 me 2 international institution kosh se vittiya sagayat ki mang ki.

In institution ne bhart ko shasrt loan pradan kiya, bharat ne inki shato ki palana krte huye, 1991 me nai arthik niti ki ghosna ki tatha arthik sudhar lagiu kiye, Arthik sudharo ke anter gat artik isti gan tatha sanchalak sudhar upaye.

Sanrachnatmak sudhar dirgh kalin prakarti ke the. Inka updesh arth vyavastha ji sanrachnak me sudhar tatha arth vyavastha ki increase krna tha.

In sudharo ke antargat sarkarn ne apni nitiyo ko punah parishisht kiya. Tatha kai nai nitiya praranbh ki economy sudharo ko udhari karan nijikaran tarha vaishvikaran ki prakiya ka dwada lagu kiya gaya.

Liberalisation ( udhari karan) :-

Economy me liberalisation me ashaya economic nitiyo niyamo tatha kanino ke Sarlikarn ki prakriya se hai. 1990 E. Se purv apnai gai vikas ranneeti me sarkar ki bhumika economy ke niyantrak tarha utoadak ki thi.

Is bhumika ka nirvahan kete huye hetu anek niyanttan tatha pratibandh lgaye gaye. Sarkar dwara 1991 me nai economic niti ke antargat economy me vaanchhit niyatrano tatha pratibandh ko sampt krne ke kiye jo aaye lagu kiye gaye unhe udhari karan kaha gya.

Inke antargat july1891 me nai industry niti goshit ki gai thatha economy ke vibhinn shetro me vyapak sudharo ki prakriya satart ki gai.

Inke vittiya shetra bhahri shetro visfeshi vinimay kr vyavastha adhi ke vyakap sudhar krte huye unke anavashyak niyamo tatha niyantramo ko samota kiya gaya.

Liberalisation ka process ke falswarup bharatiy economy samjvadi mishrit economy se punjit mishrit economy me parivartit ho gai.

Is se sarkari interfere me kami aai tatha bhartiy economy mukat bazar ya ounji wadi economy ke swarup ki or unmuk hi gai.

Udhari karan se economy ki sanrachna dhartaye sampt ho gai and kaha ja skta hai ki artio shetro tatha nitiyo me sarkari badhao ko samoy krke economy me itoadan tatha vyapar ki kriya ko saral bnane ki prakriya udhari karan hai.

Jise bhart me liberation kaha gaya vastut bah economy me western anuprogi ko bina thinking ke lagu krna hai bharat mishrit economy me punji wadi jhukav rakhne ke karan ek easie dhorahe or aa kr kahad hi gya tha.

Jaha se swadeshi ki molik arth sanskriti ki or lot ana impossible tha. Is istithi ka fayada punji wadi desho ne uthaya or bharat vishv manch pr artik udhar vad ke nam pr ek nai Prapgshala ke rup me ubhar kr samne aya.

Hmari vishal population or usme bhi samsham madhya varg puni wadi deshi ke nishno pr aya. His sarkar ne ke nam pr dehs ka bazar ka roop de diya tha uske oiche aane wali sarkaro ke loye naye raste pr chlna ashambhsb tha.

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